In all parts of the world, children play as soon as they are given the opportunity, doing so in a natural way. Gambling is part of their lives; maybe it’s one of the few things they can decide for themselves.
If we look at the origins, we can shed the contribution of the game to the human species. There is no humanity where the game does not exist. It is something that anthropologists have discovered, and if we think that the game goes together with childhood, deepening on it, we will come to consider the role of youth throughout history.
Proof that play is not an invention of our days is to be found in the literature and art of ancient, in which are described the activities of the children, and in the Roman Forum, there is a hopscotch board embedded in the floor. Older rattle makers were made of pig bladders or bird throats, which were filled with stones so that the sound produced stimulated the curiosity of younger children.
Surprisingly often, children play the same kind of games: hopscotch, a jump on the rope, with dolls or balls. However, games and toys often differ in different societies, depending on this phenomenon of access to different types of materials and existing values related to gambling.
Sharing positive play experiences creates strong links between adults and children throughout childhood. In a word, playing is vital for Childhood Development as all the skills that encourage maturation and learning are put into practice through the game. Although children learn through play with pleasure, it is not a goal in itself. It is only a means to reach a final goal. It is a natural activity that gives them joy and satisfaction.
If we take back the more primitive tribes, we find that the game was a preparation for life and survival. In the beginning, when the barbarian horde subsisted from the gathering of those who eventually found men in their nomadic wandering, the children participated, since they could have an independent march. In the common task of subsistence, so that childhood, understood as such, did not exist although the play period of the children was much shorter than it would be in later times.
In Greece, we have the inescapable example of the Greek games, which are undoubtedly the Olympic Games. These Olympic festivals were held every four years, it was the most important religious celebration, and it offered disunited Greeks the opportunity to assert their national identity.
It is not known precisely when they were held for the first time; it is known that they were held periodically before 776 BC, the official date of their beginning. Pilgrims came from everywhere, tyrants, kings, and judges began to Olympia protected by the truce. People in business and manufacturers signed contracts. There were also street vendors of statuettes, snacks, souvenirs – jugglers, saltimbanquis, magicians and seers; authors reading their works aloud from the stairs of the temples
In Rome, according to the Latin poet Juvenal (60-130), the primary concern of the people was “bread and games” (Panem et circenses). The political use of games for adults. They adopted the Greek children’s games, and slaves incorporated others.
Classical thinkers such as Plato and Aristotle already attached great importance to learning by playing and encouraged parents to give their children toys that would help “shape their minds” for future activities as adults.
Plato was one of the first to mention and to acknowledge the practical value of the game, given the prescription that makes The Laws, that the children used apples to learn better math, and that children of three years that later will be builders will serve as a useful authentic, only on a smaller scale.
The same Aristotle, who deals with educational problems for the formation of free men, mentions in several places of his work ideas that refer to the behavior of play in children. For example, “until the age of five, when it is not yet good to orient them to a study, nor coercive works so that these do not impede the growth. They must nevertheless be allowed movements to avoid bodily inactivity; and this exercise can be obtained by several systems, especially by the game”. In another passage, he mentions that ” most childhood games should be imitations of the serious occupations of the future age.”
In the Middle Ages, the game had little regulation and a simple structure, and few objects were used. Most of them took place outdoors, rudimentary, slow, and without passion for the result.
In the Renaissance, there is a change in mentality. The individual came to replace the collective; it no longer revolved around God. Simplified and traditional games gain strength, justify and reinforce the class position that practices or contemplates them.
In the second half of the NINETEENTH century, appear the first psychological theories about the game of Spender (1855), Lázarus (1883) and Groos (1898, 1901). And already started in the 20th century, we find Hall (1904) and Freid. All the theories they develop will become very important for the explanation of the game and will be prepared further ahead.
In more recent times the game has been studied and interpreted according to the new theoretical approaches that have emerged in Piaget’s Psychology (1932, 1946, 1962, 1966) that has highlighted both in his academic writings and in his clinical observations the importance of the game in the development processes. Sternberg (1989), also contributes to Piagetian theory. There are many authors who, according to Piagetian theory, have insisted on the importance for the process of human development of the activity that the individual himself carries out in his attempts to understand the material and social reality. Educators, influenced by Piaget’s theory revised, have come to the conclusion that the class has to be an active place, in which children’s curiosity is met with appropriate materials to explore, discuss and debate (Berger and Thompson, 1997). Piaget also bases his research on moral development on the study of the development of the concept of the norm within games. How to relate to and understand the rules of play is indicative of how e idea of social model evolves in the child.